(1791 - 1872)

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American contributor to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs, co-inventor of the Morse code, and an accomplished painter.

Birth and education

Samuel F.B. Morse was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, the first child of the pastor Jedidiah Morse (1761–1826), who was also a geographer, and Elizabeth Ann Finley Breese (1766–1828).[1] His father was a great preacher of the Calvinist faith and supporter of the American Federalist party. He thought it helped preserve Puritan traditions (strict observance of Sabbath, among other things), and believed in the Federalist support of an alliance with Britain and a strong central government. Morse strongly believed in education within a Federalist framework, alongside the instillation of Calvinist virtues, morals and prayers for his first son.

After attending Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, Samuel Morse went on to Yale College to receive instruction in the subjects of religious philosophy, mathematics and science of horses. While at Yale, he attended lectures on electricity from Benjamin Silliman and Jeremiah Day. He supported himself by painting. In 1810, he graduated from Yale with Phi Beta Kappa honors.[2]


Morse expressed some of his Calvinist beliefs in his painting, Landing of the Pilgrims, through the depiction of simple clothing as well as the people's austere facial features. His image captured the psychology of the Federalists; Calvinists from England brought to North America ideas of religion and government, thus linking the two countries. This work attracted the attention of the notable artist, Washington Allston. Allston wanted Morse to accompany him to England to meet the artist Benjamin West. Allston arranged a three-year stay for painting study in England with Morse's father, and young Morse set sail with the older artist aboard the Lydia on July 15, 1811.

In England, Morse worked to perfect painting techniques under Allston's watchful eye; by the end of 1811, he gained admittance to the Royal Academy. At the Academy, he was moved by the Neo-classical art of the Renaissance and paid close attention to the works of Michelangelo and Raphael. After observing and practicing life drawing and absorbing its anatomical demands, the young artist produced his masterpiece, the Dying Hercules. (He first made a sculpture as a study for the painting.)

To some, the Dying Hercules seemed to represent a political statement against the British and also the American Federalists. The muscles symbolized the strength of the young and vibrant United States versus the British and British-American supporters. During Morse’s time in Britain, the Americans and British were engaged in the War of 1812. Both societies were conflicted over loyalties. Anti-Federalist Americans aligned themselves with the French, abhorred the British, and believed a strong central government to be inherently dangerous to democracy.

As the war raged on, Morse's letters to his parents became more anti-Federalist in tone. In one such letter Morse wrote, "I assert that the Federalists in the Northern States have done more injury to their country by their violent opposition measures than a French alliance could. Their proceedings are copied into the English papers, read before Parliament, and circulated through their country, and what do they say of them... they call them (Federalists) cowards, a base set, say they are traitors to their country and ought to be hanged like traitors."[citation needed]

Although Jedediah Morse did not change Samuel's political views, he appeared to continue to be an influence. Critics believe that the elder Morse's Calvinist ideas are integral to Morse’s Judgment of Jupiter, another significant work completed in England. Jupiter is shown in a cloud, accompanied by his eagle, with his hand spread above the parties and he is pronouncing judgment. Marpessa, with an expression of compunction and shame, is throwing herself into the arms of her husband. Idas, who tenderly loved Marpessa, is eagerly rushing forward to receive her, while Apollo stares with surprise... at the unexpectedness of her decision...

Critics have suggested that Jupiter represents God’s omnipotence - watching every move that is made. Some call the portrait a moral teaching by Morse on infidelity. Although Marpessa fell victim, she realized that her eternal salvation was important and desisted from her wicked ways. Apollo shows no remorse for what he did, but stands with a puzzled look. Many American paintings throughout the early nineteenth century had religious themes, and Morse was an early exemplar of this. Judgment of Jupiter allowed Morse to express his support of Anti-Federalism while maintaining his strong spiritual convictions. West sought to present the Jupiter at another Royal Academy exhibition, but Morse's time had run out. He left England on August 21, 1815 to return to the United States and begin his full-time career as a painter.

The years 1815–1825 marked significant growth in Morse’s paintings, as he sought to capture the essence of America’s culture and life. He painted the Federalist former President John Adams (1816). He hoped to become part of grander projects. The Federalists and Anti-Federalists clashed over Dartmouth College. Morse painted portraits of Francis Brown, the college’s president, and Judge Woodward (1817), who was involved in bringing the Dartmouth case before the U.S. Supreme Court.

Morse also sought commissions among the elite of Charleston, South Carolina. Morse’s 1818 painting of Mrs. Emma Quash symbolized the opulence of Charleston. The young artist was doing well for himself.

Between 1819 and 1821, Morse had great changes in his life, and his commissions dropped off because of the Panic of 1819. Unable to stop the rift within Calvinism, his father was forced to resign from his ministerial position, which he had held for three decades. The new branch that formed was the Congregational Unitarians, which Morse as pastor thought were anti-Federalists, as they had a different belief related to religious salvation.

Although Samuel Morse respected his father’s religious opinions, he sympathized with the Unitarians. Among the converts to Unitarianism were the prominent Pickerings of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, whom Morse had painted. Some critics thought it represented his own anti-Federalism. Morse was commissioned to paint President James Monroe in 1820. He embodied Jeffersonian democracy by favoring the common man over the aristocrat.

Morse had moved to New Haven. His commissions for the Hall of Congress (1821) and a portrait of the Marquis de Lafayette (1825) engaged his sense of democratic nationalism. The Hall of Congress was designed to capitalize on the success of François-Marius Granet's The Capuchin Chapel in Rome, which toured the United States extensively throughout the 1820s, attracting audiences willing to pay the 25-cent admission fee.[3]

The artist chose to paint the House of Representatives, in a similar way, with careful attention to architecture and dramatic lighting. He also wished to select a uniquely American topic that would bring glory to the young nation, and his topic did just that, showing American democracy in action. He traveled to Washington D.C. to draw the architecture of the new halls, placing eighty individuals within the painting. He chose to portray a night scene, balancing the architecture of the Rotunda with the figures, and using lamplight to highlight the work. Pairs of people, those who stood alone, individuals bent over their desks working, were each painted simply but with faces of character. Morse chose nighttime to convey Congress’ dedication to the principles of democracy transcended day.

The Hall of Congress failed to draw a crowd at an exhibit in New York City. John Trumbull’s Declaration of Independence had won popular acclaim in 1820. Viewers may have felt that the architecture of the Hall of Congress overshadows the individuals, making it hard to appreciate the drama of what was happening.

Morse was honored to paint the Marquis de Lafayette, the leading French supporter of the American Revolution. He felt compelled to paint a grand portrait of the man who helped to establish a free and independent America. In his image, he enshrouds Lafayette with a magnificent sunset. He is positioned to the right of three pedestals: one has a bust of Benjamin Franklin, another of George Washington, and the third seems reserved for Lafayette. A peaceful wood landscape below him symbolized American tranquility and prosperity as it approached the age of fifty. The developing friendship between Morse and Lafayette, and their discussions of the Revolutionary War, affected the artist after his return to New York City.

From 1830-1832, Morse traveled and studied in Europe to improve his painting skills, traveling in Italy, Switzerland and France. As a project, he painted miniature copies of 38 of the Louvre's famous paintings on a single canvas (6 ft. x 9 ft), which he entitled The Gallery of the Louvre. He completed the work upon his return to the United States.

On a subsequent visit to Paris in 1839, Morse met Louis Daguerre. He became interested in the latter's daguerreotype, the first practical means of photography. Morse wrote a letter to the New-York Observer describing the invention, which was published widely in the American press and provided a broad awareness.[4]

Some of Morse's paintings and sculptures are on display at his Locust Grove estate in Poughkeepsie, New York.[5]


In 1825, the city of New York commissioned Morse for $1,000 to paint a portrait of Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette, in Washington. In the midst of painting, a horse messenger delivered a letter from his father that read one line, "Your dear wife is convalescent". Morse immediately left Washington for his home at New Haven, leaving the portrait of Lafayette unfinished. By the time he arrived she had already been buried.[6] Heartbroken in the knowledge that for days he was unaware of his wife's failing health and her lonely death, he moved on from painting to pursue a means of rapid long distance communication.[7]

On the sea voyage home in 1832, Morse encountered Charles Thomas Jackson of Boston who was well schooled in electromagnetism. Witnessing various experiments with Jackson's electromagnet, Morse developed the concept of a single-wire telegraph, and The Gallery of the Louvre was set aside. The original Morse telegraph, submitted with his patent application, is part of the collections of the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution.[8] In time the Morse code would become the primary language of telegraphy in the world, and is still the standard for rhythmic transmission of data.

William Cooke and Professor Charles Wheatstone learned of the Wilhelm Weber and Carl Gauß electromagnetic telegraph in 1833, and reached the stage of launching a commercial telegraph prior to Morse, despite starting later. In England, Cooke became fascinated by electrical telegraph in 1836, four years after Morse, but with greater financial resources. Cooke abandoned his primary subject of anatomy and built a small electrical telegraph within three weeks. Wheatstone also was experimenting with telegraphy and (most importantly) understood that a single large battery would not carry a telegraphic signal over long distances, and that numerous small batteries were far more successful and efficient in this task (Wheatstone was building on the primary research of Joseph Henry, an American physicist). Cooke and Wheatstone formed a partnership and patented the electrical telegraph in May 1837, and within a short time had provided the Great Western Railway with a 13-mile (21 km) stretch of telegraph. However, Cooke and Wheatstone's multiple wire signaling method would be overtaken by Morse's superior method within a few years.

In a letter to a friend, Morse describes how vigorously he fought for being called the sole inventor of the electromagnetic telegraph despite the previous inventions.[9] (1848).[10]

I have been so constantly under the necessity of watching the movements of the most unprincipled set of pirates I have ever known, that all my time has been occupied in defense, in putting evidence into something like legal shape that I am the inventor of the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph!! Would you have believed it ten years ago that a question could be raised on that subject?

Morse encountered the problem of getting a telegraphic signal to carry over more than a few hundred yards of wire. His breakthrough came from the insights of Professor Leonard Gale, who taught chemistry at New York University (a personal friend of Joseph Henry). With Gale's help, Morse soon was able to send a message through ten miles (16 km) of wire. This was the great breakthrough Morse had been seeking. Morse and Gale were soon joined by a young enthusiastic man, Alfred Vail, who had excellent skills, insights and money. At the Speedwell Ironworks in Morristown, New Jersey Morse and Vail made the first public demonstration of the electric telegraph on January 11, 1838. Although Morse and Alfred Vail had done most of the research and development in the ironworks facilities, they chose a nearby factory house as the demonstration site. Without the repeater,[11] the range of the telegraph was limited to two miles (3 km), and the inventors had pulled two miles (3 km) of wires inside the factory house through an elaborate scheme. The first public transmission, with the message "A patient waiter is no loser", was witnessed by a mostly local crowd.[citation needed]

In 1838 a trip to Washington, D.C., failed to attract federal sponsorship for a telegraph line. Morse then traveled to Europe seeking both sponsorship and patents, but in London discovered Cooke and Wheatstone had already established priority. Morse would need the financial backing of Maine congressman Francis Ormand Jonathan Smith.

Morse made one last trip to Washington, D.C., in December 1842, stringing "wires between two committee rooms in the Capitol, and sent messages back and forth" to demonstrate his telegraph system. Congress appropriated $30,000 in 1843 for construction of an experimental 38-mile (61 km) telegraph line between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore along the right-of-way of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.[12] An impressive demonstration occurred on May 1, 1844, when news of the Whig Party's nomination of Henry Clay for U.S. President was telegraphed from the party's convention in Baltimore to the Capitol Building in Washington.[12] On May 24, 1844, the line was officially opened as Morse sent the famous words "What hath God wrought" from the Supreme Court chamber in the basement of the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C. to the B&O's Mount Clare Station in Baltimore.[13] Annie Ellsworth chose these words from the Bible (Numbers 23:23); her father, U.S. Patent Commissioner Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, had championed Morse's invention and secured early funding for it. His telegraph could transmit thirty characters per minute.[14]

In May 1845 the Magnetic Telegraph Company was formed in order to radiate telegraph lines from New York City towards Philadelphia, Boston, Buffalo, New York and the Mississippi.

Morse also at one time adopted Wheatstone and Carl August von Steinheil's idea of broadcasting an electrical telegraph signal through a body of water or down steel railroad tracks or anything conductive. He went to great lengths to win a lawsuit for the right to be called "inventor of the telegraph", and promoted himself as being an inventor, but Alfred Vail played an important role in the invention of the Morse Code, which was based on earlier codes for the electromagnetic telegraph.

Samuel Morse received a patent for the telegraph in 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace (the present Beylerbeyi Palace was built in 1861–1865 on the same location) in Istanbul, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention.[15] He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849.[16]

In the 1850s, Morse went to Copenhagen and visited the Thorvaldsens Museum, where the sculptor's grave is in the inner courtyard. He was received by King Frederick VII, who decorated him with the Order of the Dannebrog. Morse expressed his wish to donate his portrait from 1830 to the king. The Thorvaldsen portrait today belongs to Margrethe II of Denmark.

The Morse telegraphic apparatus was officially adopted as the standard for European telegraphy in 1851. Only the United Kingdom (with its extensive overseas British Empire) kept the needle telegraph of Cooke and Wheatstone.[17]

There is an argument amongst historians that Morse may have received the idea of a plausible telegraph from Harrison Gray Dyar some eighteen years earlier than his patent.[18]

According to his The New York Times obituary published on April 3, 1872, Morse received respectively the decoration of the Atiq Nishan-i-Iftikhar (English: Order of Glory) [first medal on wearer's right depicted in photo of Morse with medals], set in diamonds, from the Sultan Ahmad I ibn Mustafa of Turkey (c.1847[19]), a golden snuff box containing the Prussian gold medal for scientific merit from the King of Prussia (1851); the Great Gold Medal of Arts and Sciences from the King of Württemberg (1852); and the Great Golden Medal of Science and Arts from Emperor of Austria (1855); a cross of Chevalier in the Légion d'honneur from the Emperor of France; the Cross of a Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog from the King of Denmark (1856); the Cross of Knight Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, from the Queen of Spain, besides being elected member of innumerable scientific and art societies in this [United States] and other countries. Other awards include Order of the Tower and Sword from the kingdom of Portugal (1860); and Italy conferred on him the insignia of chevalier of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus in 1864. Morse's telegraph was recognized as an IEEE Milestone in 1988.[20]

Later years

In the United States, Morse had his telegraph patent for many years, but it was both ignored and contested. In 1853 the case of the patent came before the U.S. Supreme Court where, after very lengthy investigation, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that Morse had been the first to combine the battery, electromagnetism, the electromagnet and the correct battery configuration into a workable practical telegraph. Nevertheless, in spite of this clear ruling, Morse still received no official recognition from the United States government.

The Supreme Court did not accept all of Morse's claims. The O'Reilly v. Morse case has become known among patent lawyers because the Supreme Court explicitly denied Morse's claim for any future application of his code system. The decision has been cited as relevant to the patent eligibility of software.

Assisted by the American ambassador in Paris, the governments of Europe were approached regarding how they had long neglected Morse while using his invention. There was then a widespread recognition that something must be done, and "in 1858 Morse was awarded the sum of 400,000 French francs (equivalent to about $80,000 at the time) by the governments of France, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey, each of which contributed a share according to the number of Morse instruments in use in each country." In 1858, he was also elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

There was still no such recognition in the U.S. This remained the case until June 10, 1871, when a bronze statue of Samuel Morse was unveiled in Central Park, New York City. An engraved portrait of Morse appeared on the reverse side of the United States two-dollar bill silver certificate series of 1896. He was depicted along with Robert Fulton. An example can be seen on the website of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's website in their "American Currency Exhibit":[21]

A blue plaque was erected to commemorate him at 141 Cleveland Street, London, where he lived from 1812 to 1815.

In addition to the telegraph, Morse invented a marble-cutting machine that could carve three dimensional sculptures in marble or stone. Morse couldn't patent it, however, because of an existing 1820 Thomas Blanchard design.

In the 1850s, Morse became well known as a defender of America's institution of slavery, considering it to be sanctioned. In his treatise "An Argument on the Ethical Position of Slavery," he wrote:

My creed on the subject of slavery is short. Slavery per se is not sin. It is a social condition ordained from the beginning of the world for the wisest purposes, benevolent and disciplinary, by Divine Wisdom. The mere holding of slaves, therefore, is a condition having per se nothing of moral character in it, any more than the being a parent, or employer, or ruler.[22]

Samuel Morse was a generous man who gave large sums to charity. He also became interested in the relationship of science and religion and provided the funds to establish a lectureship on 'the relation of the Bible to the Sciences'. Morse was not a selfish man. Other people and corporations made millions using his inventions, yet most rarely paid him for the use of his patented telegraph. He was not bitter about this, though he would have appreciated more rewards for his labors. Morse was comfortable; by the time of his death, his estate was valued at some $500,000 ($9.14 million today).[23]


Morse died of pneumonia at his home at 5 West 22nd Street, New York City on April 2, 1872, 25 days short of his 81st birthday. He was buried in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.[24]

Anti-Catholic and anti-immigration efforts

Morse was a leader in the anti-Catholic and anti-immigration movement of the mid-19th century. In 1836, he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of New York under the anti-immigrant Nativist Party's banner, receiving only 1496 votes. When Morse visited Rome, he refused to take his hat off in the presence of the Pope. Upon seeing this, an offended Swiss Guardsman rushed over and hit the hat off of his head. Morse worked to unite Protestants against Catholic institutions (including schools), wanted to forbid Catholics from holding public office, and promoted changing immigration laws to limit immigration from Catholic countries. On this topic, he wrote, “We must first stop the leak in the ship through which muddy waters from without threaten to sink us.”[25]

Morse was the author of a number of letters to the New York Observer (his brother Sidney was the editor at the time) urging people to fight the perceived Catholic menace. These articles were widely reprinted in other newspapers. Among other claims, he believed that the Austrian government and Catholic aid organizations were subsidizing Catholic immigration to the United States in order to gain control of the country.[26]

In his Foreign Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States,[27] Morse wrote: “Surely American Protestants, freemen, have discernment enough to discover beneath them the cloven foot of this subtle foreign heresy. They will see that Popery is now, what it has ever been, a system of the darkest political intrigue and despotism, cloaking itself to avoid attack under the sacred name of religion. They will be deeply impressed with the truth, that Popery is a political as well as a religious system; that in this respect it differs totally from all other sects, from all other forms of religion in the country.”[28]


Morse married Lucretia Pickering Walker on September 29, 1819, in Concord, New Hampshire. She died on February 7, 1825, shortly after the birth of their fourth child (Susan b. 1819, Elizabeth b. 1821, Charles b. 1823, James b. 1825). His second wife was Sarah Elizabeth Griswold. They were married on August 10, 1848 in Utica, New York and had four children (Samuel b. 1849, Cornelia b. 1851, William b. 1853, Edward b. 1857).


·                US Patent 1,647, Improvement in the mode of communicating information by signals by the application of electro-magnetism, June 20, 1840

·                US Patent 1,647 (Reissue #79), Improvement in the mode of communicating information by signals by the application of electro-magnetism, January 15, 1846

·                US Patent 1,647 (Reissue #117), Improvement in electro-magnetic telegraphs, June 13, 1848

·                US Patent 1,647 (Reissue #118), Improvement in electro-magnetic telegraphs, June 13, 1848

·                US Patent 3,316, Method of introducing wire into metallic pipes, October 5, 1843

·                US Patent 4,453, Improvement in Electro-magnetic telegraphs, April 11, 1846

·                US Patent 6,420, Improvement in electric telegraphs, May 1, 1849

References and notes

1.    ^ "Samuel F. B. Morse". Archived from the original on December 12, 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-14.

2.    ^ In 1961, Yale named Morse College, one of its twelve residential colleges, after him.

3.    ^ Wendy Bellion, Citizen Spectator: Art, Illusion, and Visual Perception in Early National America, Chapel Hill: UNC Press, forthcoming.

4.    ^ "The Daguerrotipe". The Daguerreian Society. Retrieved 2008-09-25.

5.    ^ "The Collection at Locust Grove". Retrieved 2011-02-23.

6.    ^ Bellis, Mary (2009). "Timeline: Biography of Samuel Morse 1791 - 1872"The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2009-04-27.

7.    ^ Bellis, Mary (2009). "The Communication Revolution"The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2009-04-27.

8.    ^ "Morse's Original Telegraph". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-06-04.

9.    ^ McEwen, Neal (1997). "Morse Code or Vail Code? Did Samuel F. B. Morse Invent the Code as We Know it Today?". The Telegraph Office. Retrieved 2009-10=17.

10.  ^ Samuel F. B. Morse, His Letters and Journals by Samuel F. B. Morse

11.  ^ McCullough, David (September 2011), "Reversal of Fortune", Smithsonian 42 (5): 80-88 Morse then devised a system of electromagnetic relays, and this was the key element, in that it put no limit to the distance a message could be sent.

12.  ^ a b Stover, John F. (1987). History of the Baltimore and Ohio RailroadWest Lafayette, IndianaPurdue University Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0-911198-81-4.

13.  ^ Wilson, Courtney B. (200?). The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum: The Birthplace of American Railroading. Baltimore, Maryland: Traub Company. p. 11. ISBN 1-932387-59-5.

14.  ^ Gleick, J (2011), The Information: a History, a Theory, a Flood, London, Fourth Estate, p144

15.  ^ Istanbul City Guide: Beylerbeyi Palace[dead link]

16.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter M". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 22 April 2011.

17.  ^ "Franklin and his Electric Kite-Prosecution and Progress of Electrical researches—Historical Sketch of the Electric Telegraph—Claims of Morse and others—Uses of Electricity—Telegraphic Statistics.". New York Times. November 11, 1852, Wednesday. "It was in the month of June, 1752, a century ago, that Franklin made his celebrated experiment with the Electric Kite, by means of which he demonstrated the identity of electricity and lightning."

18.  ^ Swayne, p. 241: "Harrison Gray Dyar of Concord erected the first real line and despatched the first message over it by electricity ever sent by such means in America. This may seem strange to most of our readers," says Alfred Munroe in Concord and the Telegraph, "as the credit of this great discovery has been generally conceded to Prof. Morse, but the latter deserves credit only for combining and applying the discovery of others."

19.  ^ According to Turkish PTT e-telegraph page history section, the Ottoman ruler was the first head of state to award a medal to Morse and it was issued after the demonstration in Istanbul.

20.  ^ "Milestones:Demonstration of Practical Telegraphy, 1838"IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 26 July 2011.

21.  ^ "American Currency Exhibit: Silver Certificate, $2, 1896". Frbsf.org. Retrieved 2010-08-24.

22.  ^ From An Argument on the Ethical Position of Slavery in the social system, and its relation to the politics of the day (New York, Papers from the Society for the Diffusion of Political Knowledge, no. 12, 1863) in Slavery Pamphlets # 60, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript library, Yale University. Quoted in "Yale, Slavery, & Abolition," an online report on Yale honorees, at Yaleslavery.org

23.  ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved December 7, 2010.

24.  ^ "Obituary: Prof. Samuel Finley Breese Morse" (fee). New York Times. April 3, 1872. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-10-17. "Prof. Morse died last evening at 8 o'clock, his condition having become very low soon after sunrise. Though expected, the death of this distinguished man will be received with regret by thousands to whom he was only known by fame."

1.    ^ Billington, Ray A. 'Anti-Catholic Propaganda and the Home Missionary Movement, 1800–1860' The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, (December, 1935), pp. 361–384. Published by Organization of American Historians. Jstor.org

2.    ^ Curran, Thomas J. International Migration Digest, Vol. 3, No. 1, (Spring, 1966), pp. 15–25 Published by The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Inc. Jstor.org

3.    ^ Foreign conspiracy against the liberties of the United States (1835)

4.    ^ Terry Golway (2007-02-09). "America | The National Catholic Weekly – Return of the Know-Nothings". Americamagazine.org. Retrieved 2010-08-24.


Source: Wikipedia
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